Following the continuous hotness of new food ingredients in 2021, the popularity of new raw materials will remain in 2022. According to statistics, in 2022, the National Health and Medical Commission successfully accepted applications for 22 kinds of raw materials as new food ingredients, released the approval announcement for 5 new raw food ingredients, and gave the review opinions for the termination of 4 approved bulk raw ingredients. According to the acceptance in 2022 and the unapproved situation in previous years, the new food raw materials most likely to be approved in 2023 will be them.
D-Allulose is also known as D-Psicose. But why is D-Allulose powder such a possibility? The reasons are as follows:
Back in 2015, allulose was labeled a “rare sugar.” Because it rarely occurs in nature, but the distinctive feature is zero calories. The research and use of allulose in Japan and Korea were earlier.
As early as 2011-2013, South Korea’s CJ CheilJedang and Japan’s Matsutani Group applied to the U.S. FDA for the GRAS certification of D-Psicose, and the replies they received were “no problem.” Later, it was officially approved by the FDA of the United States as a GRAS substance, allowing D-Allulose to be used as a dietary additive and some food ingredients.
In 2016, the FDA’s nutrition labeling rules stated that allulose needs to be included in the total carbohydrates, total sugars, and added sugars of the nutrition label. Each gram of allulose needs to be calculated as 4 calories.
In 2019, the FDA removed allulose from total sugar and added sugar. And in addition, it calculated 0.4 calories per gram of allulose. After the announcement of this policy, the number of new products containing allulose in North America tripled in 2020 compared to 2019.
In terms of safety and health properties, D-allulose has the following benefits.
- It does not cause diarrhea.
- It can inhibit the metabolism of starch and disaccharides in the gastrointestinal tract.
- It helps to reduce the risk of type 2 diabetes.
- Studies have shown that allulose can also enhance satiety by releasing GLP-1.
- It also can compete with glucose and fructose on the transporter on the cell membrane surface, thereby reducing the absorption rate of glucose, fructose, and other sugars in the small intestine. Ultimately, it reduces the accumulation of body fat in the human body.
Let’s see from the earlier label of allulose as “rare sugar.” Its preparation has required chemical methods for a long time, which is expensive because of its low occurrence in nature and difficulty in extraction. Therefore, there are not many companies concerned. Japan is still at the forefront. In 1990, the Izumori team at Kagawa University in Japan discovered the Alcaligenes bacterium A1caligenessp could produce D-Allulose, which opened up a precedent for the preparation of D-Allulose by biological methods.
Today, the conversion of fructose and psicose can be commercially produced using epimerase, which greatly reduces the preparation cost. So, the key to the production of allulose is the safety, preparation, and production of enzymes.
In early January 2023, the National Risk Assessment Center solicited opinions on applying D-psicose-3-epimerase as a new variety of enzyme preparation for the food industry. It means that if the enzyme is approved, the production of allulose will also be compliant, and it will also be a strong boost to the approval of new foods.
According to statistics, many enterprises and scientific research institutes have submitted the application materials of new food raw materials for D-Allulose.
Arabinoxylan composes of arabinose and xylan. It is the main structural polysaccharide naturally present in the cell wall of cereal plants and is an important dietary fiber and functional sugar.
It is understood that on March 14, 2022, it will pass the technical review of the expert review committee and openly solicit opinions.
Arabinoxylan is one source of dietary fiber. The U.S. FDA regards arabinoxylan as a dietary fiber. And products containing this ingredient powder have been allowed to be added to food or dietary supplements in the European Union, Canada, and other countries and regions.
In May 2016, FDA defined dietary fiber for the first time, which needs to meet the following two conditions.
- Indigestible soluble and insoluble carbohydrates and lignin are inherent and intact in plants.
- Isolated and synthetic non-digestible soluble and insoluble carbohydrates determined by FDA to be beneficial to human health.
At present, the United States has approved 17 dietary fibers, including β-glucan soluble fiber, psyllium husk, and arabinoxylan.
There are less than 10 kinds of dietary fiber raw materials in China’s new food: xylooligosaccharides, galactooligosaccharides, inulin powder, poly fructose, psyllium husk, and Arabinogalactan.
Based on the powerful prebiotic effect of dietary fiber, consumers are increasingly aware of the health benefits of a fiber diet. The Chinese Nutrition Society recommends that the appropriate intake of dietary fiber for adults is 30 grams per day. The “Dietary Guidelines for Chinese Residents 2022 Edition” added “whole grains” based on the 2016 edition, emphasizing the importance of grains, which also means increased dietary fiber intake.
Arabinoxylan has prebiotic health benefits. Arabinoxylan has prebiotic health benefits. Studies have shown that arabinoxylan can also improve carbohydrate, lipid, and amino acid metabolism in type 2 diabetic rats. It provides important insights into the underlying mechanism of type 2 diabetes and the role of arabinoxylan.
If arabinoxylan is approved as a new food ingredient, it may become a new star raw material in intestinal health and sports nutrition.
03 Calcium β-Hydroxy-β-Methylbutyrate
Calcium β-hydroxy-methyl butyrate, CaHMB simply, is the calcium salt of β-hydroxy-β-methyl butyric acid (HMB). HMB is widely found in a variety of foods. At the same time, it is also a secondary metabolite of leucine in the human body.
The main raw ingredients are as below.
- sodium hypochlorite
- diacetone alcohol
- hydrochloric acid
- ethyl acetate
- calcium hydroxide
And then, through oxidation synthesis, acidification, extraction, and other processes manufacture these ingredients to HMB powder.
Now, β-hydroxy-β-methyl butyric acid has been approved for use by many countries and international organizations, such as China, the United States, the European Union, Japan, and Singapore.
The raw material CaHMB is actually very characteristic. Its application population and application fields are relatively wide. In addition to being suitable for young people to lose weight and replace meals, it is also suitable for sports people to supplement sports nutrition and improve sports effects. It is also suitable for the elderly.
Because HMB is a key factor in maintaining muscle health, it mainly accelerates the synthesis of muscle protein and reduces the breakdown of muscle protein.
Blood levels of HMB decrease with age, and since food contains only trace amounts, additional supplementation is required.
Now, enter the era of a long crown. With the physical recovery after “Yangkang,” people’s rapid recovery after exercise, and middle-aged and elderly people’s emphasis on muscle health after bone health, CaHMB will be more widely used. Therefore, the expansion of the approved application of CaHMB is reasonable, and the approval index is not low.
04 Leuconostoc Pseudomesenteroides
Leuconostoc Pseudomesenteroides is isolated from traditional fermented dairy products, and it is also an important Leuconostoc Pseudomesenteroides in a lactic acid bacterium.
Studies have confirmed that Leuconostoc Enterococcus can ferment sugars to produce a variety of acids and alcohols. It has a high acid production capacity, antioxidant capacity, and the ability to antagonize pathogenic bacteria.
It is understood that Leuconostoc Pseudoenteritidis declared new food raw materials on April 19, 2021 (Wei Shi Xin Jin Shen Zi (2021) No. 0002), and public comments will be solicited in June 2022.
Its application scope includes fermented milk, cheese, fermented milk beverage, and lactic acid bacteria beverage. Another Leuconostoc Enteritidis strain, called the Leuconostoc Enteritidis Subspecies, had been included in China’s “List of strains that can be used in food” (Announcement No. 4, 2022). It is also the only Leuconostoc strain that can be applied to food in China.
As the first Leuconostoc Pseudomesenteroides that appeared in China, it has been included in the following lists.
- recommended biological agents in the European Food Safety Authority Qualification (QPS) list
- the “Bulletin of the IDF 495/2018.”
- “Catalog of microorganisms proven safe in fermented foods”
And it has been approved for use in Denmark, Canada, South Korea, and other countries.
Compared with the well-applied Bifidobacterium and Lactobacillus, the presence of Leuconostoc is not strong in the domestic market. In addition, it is imported raw material, and there are few domestic studies. The approval index is “The main reason for three and a half stars.
In addition, according to the data, among the strains that induce Leuconostoc infection in humans, Leuconostoc Enterica, Leuconostoc Lactis, and Leuconostoc Citrate are the three most likely strains. In contrast, human infection caused by Leuconostoc Pseudomesenteroides is rare. Still, it can also occur in debilitated or immunosuppressed patients, such as patients who have been treated with vancomycin for a long time.
Therefore, in terms of safety, Leuconostoc Pseudomesenteroides is better than Leuconostoc Enteritidis as a whole. Since Leuconostoc Enterica is already an edible strain, its “false brother” is more likely to be approved.
In addition, the “Leuconostoc Enteritidis Subspecies Milk Fat” (Weishi Xinshen Zi (2021) No. 0014) declared on November 23, 2021, is also a type of Leuconostoc Enteritidis, and this raw material is currently under acceptance. There is also the possibility of approval in 2023, and we can continue to pay attention.
It seems that Leuconostoc Enterica is going to make a big impact. And in the future, our lactic acid bacteria market will have more varieties of products.
05 Green Tea Catechins
As early as 2010, EGCG, the active ingredient in green tea, was approved by the former Ministry of Health as a new resource food, and the recommended daily consumption is ≤300 mg/day (calculated as EGCG).
The green tea catechins for which opinions are solicited this time are active compound ingredients in green tea, including EC, EGC, ECG, EGCG, GCG, and DL-C. The total content of catechins (based on the dry matter) is≥ 90%, of which EGCG content is≥ 50%.
Japan has approved green tea catechin as a functional ingredient for specific health food, and it is also highly recognized in the Chinese market. Although this application is limited to beverages and candies, the possibility of expanding its application in the future cannot be ruled out after approval.
06 Blueberry Anthocyanins
The food raw material was called Lanmei No. 1 blueberry extract when it was declared and was renamed “blueberry anthocyanin” when it was solicited for comments.
The draft for comments shows that the total anthocyanin content of blueberries is ≥40%, which is also said to be the highest quality blueberry extract in China. It is also in line with the international food level. Because the blueberry extract approved by Canada is used as a natural health food, it requires anthocyanin content ≥ 40%. Anthocyanins from natural sources such as the European Union and the United States are also food additives that can be used in foods such as beverages.
Green tea catechins and blueberry anthocyanins are Chinese food ingredients. In addition, rye pollen and eggshell membranes are equally likely to be approved. But these two raw materials are imported raw materials from abroad.
Yeast protein, Wen Guan fruit leaves, Massoniana pine needles, peach gum, maqui fruit extract, (3R, 3’S)-dihydroxy-β-carotene, maritime pine bark extract (trade name: Pycnogenol®), Coreopsis bicolor, marigold extract powder, Sorbifolium seed kernel.
These 10 raw ingredients were mainly accepted in 2021-2022, and there has been no public consultation. So it will take some time before it is approved. Among them, (3R, 3’S)-dihydroxy-β-carotene terminated the review because it was approved as a new food raw material in 2017.
The crown fruit species and the crown fruit leaves, with the previous approval of the “Wen Guan fruit oil,” belongs to the Wen Guan fruit industry chain, which greatly promotes rural revitalization.
As a new type of protein, yeast protein also has great application potential. There are few protein raw materials in China’s new food raw ingredients Nutilist. As one of the three major nutrients, protein, especially alternative protein, has been a hot raw material for functional foods in recent years. One more powerful player on the track.
The application of coastal pine bark extract (trade name: Pycnogenol®) and the marigold extract is relatively mature and may enter the stage of soliciting opinions this year.
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