How Is Alpha-Ketoglutarate Formed From Glutamate?
As mentioned, the process of transamination involves transferring an amino group (-NH2) from an amino acid to an alpha-keto acid. In this case, glutamate acts as the donor of the amino group, and alpha-ketoglutarate acts as the acceptor of the amino group.
The enzyme alanine transaminase (ALT), also known as glutamate-pyruvate transaminase, facilitates this reaction by catalyzing the transfer of the amino group from glutamate to alpha-ketoglutarate. Specifically, ALT transfers the amino group from the amino acid glutamate to the alpha-keto acid, alpha-ketoglutarate, forming an amino acid, alanine, and alpha-ketoglutarate.
The reaction occurs in the liver, and the alanine produced is transported to other tissues in the body, where it can be used for protein synthesis or converted back to pyruvate for energy production. Meanwhile, alpha-ketoglutarate can enter the Krebs cycle, where it is oxidized to produce energy.
The Krebs cycle is a sequence of biological events that occur in the mitochondria of cells. It is also known as the cycle of citric acid or the tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle. In this cycle, acetyl-CoA is coupled with oxaloacetate to make citrate, which produces NADH, FADH2, and ATP through a series of reactions. Alpha-ketoglutarate is a Krebs cycle intermediate metabolized to succinyl-CoA, which creates NADH, FADH2, and ATP.
What Activates Alpha-Ketoglutarate?
Alpha-ketoglutarate is a crucial step in the citric acid or TCA cycle of the Krebs cycle. It is essential for cellular energy metabolism. However, alpha-ketoglutarate is not directly activated or controlled. Instead, the enzymes engaged in the Krebs cycle and other metabolic pathways that use alpha-ketoglutarate are regulated by various mechanisms that govern the flow of metabolic intermediates and maintain adequate energy consumption.
The enzyme activity called isocitrate dehydrogenase (IDH), which catalyzes the transformation of isocitrate to alpha-ketoglutarate in the Krebs cycle, is controlled by several factors, including substrate and product concentrations, as well as allosteric effectors such as ATP, NADH, and ADP. High levels of ATP and NADH, which indicate adequate energy supply, suppress IDH activity, whereas low amounts of both molecules enhance IDH activity. Similar processes govern the regulation of other Krebs cycle enzymes, such as alpha-ketoglutarate dehydrogenase.
In addition to its role in the Krebs cycle, alpha-ketoglutarate is also involved in other metabolic pathways, including amino acid metabolism and the regulation of gene expression. For example, alpha-ketoglutarate-dependent enzymes called dioxygenases play a crucial role in epigenetic regulation by modifying histone and DNA methylation patterns, which can influence gene expression and cell differentiation. The activity of these enzymes is also regulated by factors such as substrate availability and cofactors, such as iron and oxygen.
What Are Alpha-ketoglutarate natural sources?
Alpha-ketoglutarate (AKG) is a naturally occurring organic acid found in various foods, including both plant- and animal-based sources. Here are some examples of AKG natural sources:
- Meat and poultry
AKG is high in meat and poultry products, particularly red meat such as beef, pork, and lamb.
- Fish and seafood
Certain types of fish and seafood, such as salmon, tuna, and shrimp, are good sources of AKG.
- Dairy products
Milk, yogurt, and cheese are also sources of AKG, although in lower amounts than meat and fish.
- Fruits and vegetables
AKG is present in small amounts in many fruits and vegetables, including citrus fruits, grapes, berries, tomatoes, spinach, and broccoli.
- Nuts and seeds
Some nuts and seeds, such as almonds, walnuts, and sunflower seeds, are also sources of AKG.
- Fermented foods
Certain fermented foods, such as kimchi and sauerkraut, contain AKG, although the amount can vary depending on the fermentation process.
AKG supplements are also available as capsules or powders, which can be taken as dietary supplements.
It’s worth noting that the amount of AKG in these sources can vary depending on the type of food, the processing method, and the cooking method. While AKG is an essential intermediate in the Krebs cycle and other metabolic pathways, more research is needed to determine the potential health benefits and optimal dosages of AKG supplements.
How To Manufacture This Ingredient From These Natural Sources?
Alpha-ketoglutarate (AKG) can be extracted and purified from natural sources using various methods. Here are some standard techniques for manufacturing AKG from natural sources:
AKG can be produced through the fermentation of specific bacteria strains, such as Bacillus subtilis and Corynebacterium glutamicum, which convert glutamate to AKG. This process can be carried out using various substrates, including glucose and other carbohydrates, and optimized for the maximum yield of AKG.
- Extraction and purification
Using chemical methods, AKG can also be extracted and purified from natural sources. For example, acid hydrolysis can remove AKG from animal tissues such as the liver and muscle, followed by chromatographic purification. AKG can also be extracted from plant materials such as grapes and apples using ethanol or methanol extraction, followed by evaporation and purification.
AKG can also be synthesized from various precursor molecules through chemical synthesis. For example, AKG can be synthesized from glutamic acid using a transamination reaction with alpha-ketoglutaric acid. Alternatively, AKG can be synthesized from maleic anhydride using a hydration reaction.
Once AKG is extracted or synthesized, it can be further processed and formulated into various products, such as dietary supplements and functional foods. For example, AKG can be combined with other ingredients, such as amino acids and vitamins, to create nutritional supplements that support energy metabolism and muscle function. AKG can also be added to sports and other functional beverages to enhance athletic performance and recovery.
Calcium Alpha-Ketoglutarate VS Alpha-Ketoglutarate
CaAKG is a salt form of AKG that contains calcium ions. The addition of calcium to AKG is intended to increase the stability and solubility of the compound, as well as improve its bioavailability. Calcium is essential in many biological processes, including bone health, muscle, and nerve function. The calcium ions in CaAKG are believed to have potential health benefits, particularly for bone health and exercise performance.
AKG, on the other hand, is the compound’s free acid form. It is a component of the Krebs cycle that influences energy metabolism. AKG has been indicated to provide potential health advantages for exercise performance and recovery, immune function support, and oxidative stress prevention.
CaAKG and AKG have been studied for their potential health benefits, particularly exercise performance and recovery. Some studies have suggested that CaAKG may improve exercise performance, reduce muscle damage and soreness, and support bone health. AKG has also been recommended to enhance athletic performance, reduce muscle fatigue, support immune function, and protect against oxidative stress.
Where Does Calcium Alpha-Ketoglutarate Come From?
Calcium alpha-ketoglutarate (CaAKG) can be synthesized through the reaction of alpha-ketoglutaric acid (AKG) with calcium hydroxide (Ca(OH)2). This process results in the formation of a salt, CaAKG, which contains AKG and calcium ions.
CaAKG can also be obtained from natural sources, such as fruits and vegetables containing AKG and other organic acids. In particular, grapes are a rich source of AKG, and CaAKG can be extracted from grape pomace, the solid residue that remains after the grapes are pressed for juice. The extraction process involves treating the grape pomace with calcium hydroxide, filtration, and evaporation to obtain the CaAKG salt.
CaAKG is commonly used in dietary supplements and functional foods due to its potential health benefits, such as supporting bone health, enhancing exercise performance, and reducing muscle damage and soreness.
What Is The Best Ca-Akg Powder Supplier?
Nutri Avenue is a top supplier of calcium alpha-ketoglutarate (CaAKG) powder, offering high-quality supplements for customers seeking to support their bone health, enhance exercise performance, and reduce muscle damage and soreness. Nutri Avenue’s CaAKG powder is sourced from premium ingredients and manufactured using state-of-the-art technology to ensure purity, potency, and consistency. With a dedication to excellence and client satisfaction, Nutri Avenue has earned a reputation as a leading supplier, offering consumers effective and dependable supplements supported by scientific research and stringent quality control.