Choline is a strong organic base. It is an important component of lecithin and sphingomyelin. It is widely found in plants and animals. This substance is a component of all biological membranes and a precursor of acetylcholine in cholinergic neurons. Citicoline is a single nucleotide composed of ribose, cytosine, pyrophosphate, and choline. It is a water-soluble compound.
Today, Nutri Avenue focuses on “Choline VS Citicoline, which one is better absorbed by the human body” to support the selection of the best ingredients for different functional products.
Choline: White Deliquescent Needle-Like Crystalline Powder
Normally, choline is an important neurotransmitter. It is also an endogenous alkaline alcohol and a vitamin-like nutrient. Related to other vitamins such as folic acid and vitamins in the B vitamin complex family.
It participates in various body functions in the human body, including the synthesis of acetylcholine, neurotransmission, cell membrane stability, fat metabolism, liver function, etc. The ingredient also benefits heart health, mental development, improved memory, and more.
In 1998, choline was added to the National Academy of Sciences (NAS) list of required nutrients, making it one of the latest additions of all nutrients.
Foods High In Choline
Choline occurs naturally in foods including eggs, liver, beef, salmon, cauliflower, Brussels sprouts, and breast milk. Of these, eggs are sometimes called “brain food” because they are known for providing large amounts of choline.
Citicoline: A Drug. Also, A Nootropic Ingredient
The chemical name of this ingredient is Cytidine diphosphate choline or CDP-Choline for short. Its trade name is Citicoline. Citicoline is a derivative of nucleic acids. It is the precursor of the phospholipid phosphatidylcholine and a coenzyme necessary for the biosynthesis of lecithin.
In the central nervous system, the synthesis of most phospholipids is regulated by changes in citicoline concentration. It can be seen that it has an important impact on the health of brain cells. So, in other words, this ingredient follows several specific benefits.
- It improves concentration and reflexes.
- It enhances memory and cognitive abilities.
- It strengthens the brain’s thinking ability.
- It can assist in restoring brain function.
Choline VS Citicoline: Up To 90% Bioavailability
Choline is not actually considered a mineral or vitamin. However, it is known to be an essential micronutrient required for many functions in the body, especially brain function. It exists in the form of phospholipidcholine, a compound that forms the structural component of fats. Therefore, this ingredient can be found in different foods that naturally contain certain fats. The human body can produce small amounts of choline. The remaining requirements can be supplemented externally.
However, some reports suggest that the body does not actually absorb a certain percentage of the choline found in food sources. It may be one of the reasons some people develop choline deficiency. It is especially true for those with liver damage, as choline is partially processed in the liver.
At this time, choline supplements are a good choice. However, there are many types of this product. Some are more easily absorbed and utilized by the body. At the same time, others don’t quite have the same effect. It concerns how the body converts choline into the molecule acetylcholine. Additionally, different types of choline vary in their ability to cross the blood-brain barrier after ingestion. Some experts note that the type of choline most readily absorbed by the body is CDP choline, also known as citicoline or alpha-GPC choline.
This ingredient is rapidly absorbed orally and hydrolyzed into choline and cytosine in the intestines and liver. The latter two enter the blood circulation system, cross the blood-brain barrier, and are reassembled into citicoline in the central nervous system. In the central nervous system, 80% of phospholipid synthesis is affected by the concentration of intrareceptor Citicoline.
Additionally, citicoline can be converted into acetylcholine in the central nervous system. Oxidized to betaine in the kidneys and liver. Citicoline has good water solubility, and its bioavailability is as high as 90%. After oral administration, less than 1% is excreted in the feces. There are 2 absorption peaks in plasma, respectively, at 1 hour and 24 hours after ingestion.
In a rat model, levels of radiolabeled citicoline steadily increased in the brain 10 hours after ingestion. It is widely distributed in the white and gray matter of the brain. The concentration remains high at 48 hours, and its elimination is very slow. Only a small amount is excreted every day through urine, feces, and breathing.
Under the topic “Choline VS Citicoline, which one is better absorbed by the body,” it can be concluded that Citicoline has a higher bioavailability. In other words, it is more easily absorbed by the body. Citicoline, as the main component of a drug, can be used for acute craniocerebral trauma, disturbance of consciousness after brain surgery, etc. It can also be used as a raw material for health products and is a nootropic ingredient.