Choline is an endogenous alkaline alcohol. Citicoline refers to the form taken exogenously. It comes in two forms, including citicoline sodium and citicoline-free base. The former form is a prescription drug used in many countries to treat neurological disorders. In the United States, the second form is a dietary supplement.
3 Major Preparation Methods: Microbial Fermentation, Organic Chemical Synthesis, And Enzymatic Synthesis
The first is microbial fermentation. However, this method has problems such as low product concentration and unstable yield.
The second is organic chemical synthesis. This method makes it difficult to separate the product from the condensing agent and is unsuitable for medicinal use. There are also problems such as low reaction conversion rate, many by-products, high cost, and serious environmental pollution.
The third method is enzymatic synthesis, which uses microorganisms such as beer yeast mud for biosynthesis.
Citicoline is enzymatically synthesized using free brewer’s yeast mud cells. The process is simple, the conversion rate is high, and the cost is low. In addition, the production process of enzymatic synthesis can also be divided into two parts: the enzymatic synthesis process and the extraction and purification process. For example, the synthesis method involves the reaction of cytosine-5′-diphosphate and ethyleneimine to generate cytosine-5′-diphosphate aminoethyl ester, which is then methylated with methyl iodide. It can also be obtained by direct cytosine-5′-phosphate amide and phosphocholine ester condensation.
2 Application Areas Of Citicoline: Drugs And Dietary Supplements
Citicoline is a single nucleotide composed of nucleic acid, cytosine, pyrophosphate, and choline. It is mainly used clinically to treat various neurodegenerative diseases, such as Alzheimer’s disease, multiple sclerosis, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, etc. Studies have also shown that this ingredient can increase the brain’s uptake of dopamine and glutamate, thereby improving cognitive abilities.
It can also reduce the release of free fatty acids and restore the activity of mitochondrial ATPase and cell membrane Na+/K+ATPase, thereby alleviating brain damage. However, the pathophysiological mechanisms of neurodegenerative diseases are very complex, involving cholinergic deficiency, glutamate excitotoxicity, neuroinflammation, immune dysregulation, glucose hypometabolism, and blood-brain barrier disruption.
Regarding current applications, the ingredient we talked about today is clinically used in the following aspects.
- Consciousness disorder after acute craniocerebral trauma and brain surgery
- Cerebral thrombosis, multiple cerebral embolism
- Shaking paralysis
- Sequelae of stroke
- Insufficient blood supply to the brain caused by cerebral arteriosclerosis
- Carbon monoxide poisoning and various organic encephalopathy
Citicoline supplements are generally marketed to help improve functions such as concentration, cognitive ability, and brain health.
In addition, some studies have found that this supplement can also help adolescent men’s exercise speed. Therefore, some supplement products claim that Citicoline can be taken before exercise. It strengthens the connection between the brain and muscles, improving athletic performance.
Citicoline comes in two forms, including citicoline sodium and citicoline free base. There are generally three ways to prepare this ingredient. Among them, the most widely used is enzymatic synthesis. This method has a simple process, a high conversion rate, and a low cost. This ingredient is available as a drug and dietary supplement. It can improve cognitive abilities, strengthen memory and concentration, and effectively prevent diseases like Alzheimer’s disease, Parkinson’s disease, and other similar diseases.
Nutri Avenue offers Citicoline/Citicoline Sodium to support medicinal uses and supplements. The purity of this ingredient is above 99%. It has Kosher, Halal, US GRAS, 3rd-party testing, etc. For more product details, please contact us.