What is Caffeic Acid Phenethyl Ester?
Caffeic Acid Phenethyl Ester is simply known as (CAPE). It is chemically known as 2-phenylethyl (2E)-3-(3,4-dihydroxyphenyl)acrylate and known in the industry as phenylethyl caffeate or phenethyl caffeate. Caffeic Acid Phenethyl Ester naturally occurs in many plants and is an active component of propolis. Propolis can be obtained rarely from extraction from beehives which is in its pure form and propolis is very popular for its antibacterial, antiviral, immunomodulatory (immune response) antifungal, anticarcinogenic(anti-cancer), and anti-inflammatory properties.
Caffeic Acid Phenethyl Ester is insoluble in water but it can be soluble in organic solvents like ethanol, methanol, acetone, acetonitrile or DMSO (Dimethyl sulfoxide) . Furthermore, it is also a specific inhibitor of NF-κB which is a nuclear transcription factor that also play critical role in inflammation,immunity,cell proliferation , differentiation, and survival.
Nowadays, it is out in the market in the form of powders only.
What human benefits can CAPE offer?
- Caffeic Acid Phenethyl Ester is an adaptable therapeutically active polyphenol with hydroxyl groups that is responsible for its crucial role in a lot of biological activities such as being an effective moiety (part or functional group of molecule) in contrary to a lot of pathologies namely infections, oxidative stress,cancer, anxiety, inflammation, diabetes and neurodegeneration (gradual deterioration that leads to loss of nerve structure and functions such as memoryand decision making).
- Anticarcinogenic- it is effective adjuvant (immune response enhancer) of chemotherapy for making therapeutic efficacy better and lessening toxicities during chemotherapy. It is also an anti-oxidant which helps in fighting cancer. Unlike other anti-cancer drugs, CAPE inhibits free radical formation leading to the lessening of chemotherapy-induced toxicity and it minimizes the undesired effects of other anti-cancer drugs like the destruction of liver and kidney.
- As a specific inhibitor of NF-KcB activation, it can contribute to the multiple activities as immunomodulatory (help modify the immune response) and anti-inflammatory. Furthermore, researches have shown that it can suppress the lipoxygenase pathway of arachidonic acidmetabolism during inflammation which means that it is really used to control inflammation.
- It is considered a potent anti-oxidant in which it protects the cells from lipid peroxidation (cell damage due to the stealing of electrons by the free radicals that leads to aging ) and induces apoptosis (death of cells)
- Recently found out that it inhibits the activities of HIV-1 integrase (multidomain enzyme which is required for the integration of viral DNA into the host genome) which can be a potential anti-HIV therapy
- Can help in treating sore throat, common colds and wound when it is taken as dietary supplement
- In agriculture, it can be fungicidal which means that it can kill fungi without harming the plants.
- Antihepatotoxic (ability to prevent liver damage known as hepatoxicity).
Due to its potential human benefits, a lot more researches are being processed to prove further and discover more the wonders of Caffeic Acid Phenethyl Ester.